Baby Boomers Buying More Online
The coronavirus pandemic has forced consumers to change many habits, including how they shop. This is particularly true for baby boomers (ages 56 to 74). Nearly half (45%) said they shop online more, with some product categories seeing a large shift in online purchases.
Is Now a Good Time to Consider a Roth Conversion?
This year has been challenging on many fronts, but one financial opportunity may have emerged from the economic turbulence. If you’ve been thinking about converting your traditional IRA to a Roth, now might be an appropriate time to do so.
Roth IRAs offer tax-free income in retirement. Contributions to a Roth IRA are not tax-deductible, but qualified withdrawals, including any earnings, are free of federal income tax. Such withdrawals may also be free of any state income tax that would apply to retirement plan distributions.
Generally, a Roth distribution is considered “qualified” if it meets a five-year holding requirement and you are age 59% or older, become permanently disabled, or die (other exceptions may apply).
Regardless of your filing status or how much you earn, you can convert assets in a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. Though annual IRA contribution limits are relatively low ($6,000 to all IRAs combined in 2020, or $7,000 if you are age 50 or older), there is no limit to the amount you can convert or the number of conversions you can make during a calendar year. An inherited traditional IRA cannot be converted to a Roth, but a spouse beneficiary who treats an inherited IRA as his or her own can convert the assets.
Converted assets are subject to federal income tax in the year of conversion and may also be subject to state taxes. This could result in a substantial tax bill, depending on the value of your account, and could move you into a higher tax bracket. However, if all conditions are met, the Roth account will incur no further income tax liability and you won’t be subject to required minimum distributions. (Designated beneficiaries are required to take withdrawals based on certain rules and time frames, depending on their age and relationship to the original account holder, but such withdrawals would be free of federal tax.)
Comparatively low income tax rates combined with the impact of the economic downturn might make this an appropriate time to consider a Roth conversion.
The lower income tax rates passed in 2017 are scheduled to expire at year-end 2025; however, some industry observers have noted that taxes may rise even sooner due to rising deficits exacerbated by the pandemic relief measures.
Moreover, if the value of your IRA remains below its pre-pandemic value, the tax obligation on your conversion will be lower than if you had converted prior to the downturn. If your income is lower in 2020 due to the economic challenges, your tax rate could be lower as well.
Any or all of these factors may make it worth considering a Roth conversion, provided you have the funds available to cover the tax obligation.
As long as your traditional and Roth IRAs are with the same provider, you can typically transfer shares from one account to the other. When share prices are lower, as they may be in the current market environment, you could theoretically convert more shares for each dollar and would have more shares in your Roth account to pursue tax-free growth. Of course, there is also a risk that the converted assets will go down in value.
Using Conversions to Make “Annual Contributions”
Finally, if you are not eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA because your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is too high (see table), a Roth conversion may offer a workaround. You can make nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA and then convert traditional IRA assets to a Roth. This is often called a “back-door” Roth IRA.
As this history-making year approaches its end, this is a good time to think about last-minute moves that might benefit your financial and tax situation. A Roth conversion could be an appropriate strategy.
All investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal, and there is no guarantee that any investment strategy will be successful.
Seeking Sun or Savings? Explore a Retirement Move
Many people intend to retire in the place they call home, where they have established families and friendships. But for others, the end of a career brings the freedom to choose a new lifestyle in a different part of the country — or the opportunity to preserve more wealth and protect it from taxes.
This big life decision is not all about money or the weather. Quality-of-life issues matter, too, such as proximity to family members and/or a convenient airport, access to good health care, and abundant cultural and recreational activities. In fact, choosing a retirement destination typically involves a delicate negotiation of emotional and financial issues, especially for married couples who may not share all the same goals and priorities.
If you’re nearing retirement, there’s a good chance you have at least thought about living somewhere warmer, less expensive, or perhaps closer to children who have built lives elsewhere. Here are some important factors to consider.
Cost of Living
A high cost of living can become a bigger concern in retirement, when you may need to stretch a fixed income or depend solely on your savings for several decades. There’s no question that your money will go further in some places than in others.
The cost of living varies among states and even within a state, and it’s typically higher in large cities than in rural areas. Housing is typically the largest factor — and often varies the most from place to place — but cost of living also includes transportation, food, utilities, health care, and, of course, taxes.
Selling a home in a high-cost area might enable you to buy a nice home in a lower-cost area with cash to spare. The additional funds could boost your savings and provide additional income. Moving to a more expensive locale may require some sacrifices when it comes to your living situation, future travel plans, and other types of personal spending.
Seven states have no personal income tax — Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming (Tennessee and New Hampshire tax only interest and dividend income) — and other states have different rules for taxing Social Security and pension income. Estate taxes are also more favorable in some states than in others. Property taxes and sales taxes also vary by state and even by county, so make sure to include them when calculating and comparing the total tax bite for prospective destinations.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act limited the annual deduction for state and local taxes to $10,000. This change resulted in federal tax increases for some wealthier households in high-tax states, and it may also factor into your relocation decision.
A high cost of living can become a bigger concern in retirement, when ^11 you may need to stretch a fixed income or depend solely on your savings for several decades.
Tips for Snowbirds
If you can afford the best of both worlds, you might prefer to keep your current home and head south for the winter. But if your choice of location is based largely on lower taxes, consider how much the costs of owning, maintaining, and traveling between two homes might cut into (or exceed) the potential tax savings.
To establish residency in the new state, you must generally live there for more than half of the year and possibly meet other conditions. You should also be aware that the tax agency in your old state may challenge your residency claim, especially if you still own property, earn income, or maintain other strong ties. If so, you may need to document your time and activities in each state and/or prove that your new home is your primary and permanent residence.
If you decide to live somewhere new on a full- or part-time basis, it may be worthwhile to rent for the first year, just in case the adjustment turns out to be more difficult than expected. You might also discuss the financial implications of a move with a tax professional.
Lessons from the Lockdown:
If there is one thing the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders demonstrated, it was the need to find joy in simple pleasures. In fact, 43% of respondents to one survey said they had “changed their ways for the better” as a result of the lockdown.1 By applying some of the lessons learned from pandemic purgatory to the holiday season, families may be able to create new and meaningful traditions while saving money.
Travel. While confined to their homes for several months, people discovered the benefits of virtual get-togethers via video calls. The same survey cited above found that many people who used videoconferencing technology reported that they connected more with loved ones during the lockdown than before restrictions were put into place.2 This holiday season, if you can’t be with your loved ones, consider scheduling a virtual gathering to open gifts or share a meal together. An added benefit of less time and money spent on travel could be lower stress overall.
Experience vs. “stuff.” Of course, sharing experiences in person can be more rewarding than a video chat. Stay-at-home orders prompted many people to reflect on how much they took for granted, especially the opportunity simply to spend time with loved ones they don’t see on a regular basis. As many grandparents would likely contend, time spent with family can be a much more valuable gift than the latest gadget or fashion trend. Moreover, while in lockdown, many families discovered they could actually live without many of the material goods they purchase on a regular basis. Rather than spending a lot on “stuff” this season, consider intentionally downsizing the piles of gifts exchanged and focusing more on the shared celebrations and traditions.
In April 2020, during the height of the stay-at-home orders, the nation’s personal savings rate hit an all-time high of32%.3
Food. During the lockdown, many people rediscovered the simple joy of preparing and eating home-cooked meals and baked goods. And because ingredients were often limited due to supply-chain disruptions, creativity became a valuable kitchen skill. This holiday season, instead of spending a small fortune dining out, why not put some of that pandemic culinary prowess to work? Simple meals that the whole family helps prepare can be cost-effective as well as memory-making. Wrapped up with a beautiful bow, your creations can also make thoughtful, inexpensive, edible gifts. (You might also consider supporting local businesses by having food gifts delivered or purchasing gift cards.)